The animals must come first

Why does the documentary film Farm and Red Moon need to be made? Haven’t we already learned about the horrors of the slaughterhouse (Earthlings), the trouble with factory farming (Food, Inc.), the global warming contribution of intensive animal agriculture (Conspiracy), and the heath hazards of eating animals (Forks Over Knives)?

What else is there to say?  What else needs to be done? I respect each individual’s food choices and I’m not getting involved head-on in the debate whether we should eat animals or not (at least not in this film), although I believe it’s one of the most important questions facing consumers today from an environmental sustainability, health, and animal welfare perspective.

I started out making this film as a vegan and for the time being I’m a seriously conflicted omnivore who continues to identify as a vegan. Where I end up at the end of the film remains to be seen, the story is still in progress. My focus with Farm and Red Moon, along with my co-director David Tamés, is that we want everyone, omnivores, vegetarians, vegans, etc. to learn about the missing link between pasture and plate. The issue of “decent death” has been kept out of the public conversation for way too long.


Those who choose to to eat animal flesh often find comfort in the images of happy animals on pasture next to labels like “Humanely Raised,” “Certified Humane,” or “Animal Welfare Approved” in store displays and on food packaging. Many people sincerely believe that animals should lead a good life and be afforded a humane death if they are to become the food on our plates. Yet lurking behind these labels and “humane slaughter” rhetoric is a serious problem that we should not turn away from, regardless of whether you’re an omnivore, vegetarian, or vegan: All but one of the major certification/labelling systems conveniently avoids the process of slaughter.


In spite of “humane slaughter” being mandated by federal law in the United States and growing concern about where our food comes from, too many people wants to avoid dealing with what goes on behind the closed doors of the slaughterhouse. It’s outrageous when you think about that an organization will certify a product “humane” while ignoring what goes on in the slaughterhouse. We believe that everyone, regardless of their food choices, should understand how animals die to become our food.

If you’re going to eat meat I believe you should be aware of everything that’s involved in the transition from sentient animal to food. A focus on humane abuses is not enough. What happens when conscientious people committed to doing it right kill animals? Watching undercover videos of things gone wrong was not enough for me, it was not the whole story. I wanted to know and see for myself what goes everyday in industrial slaughterhouses, boutique abattoirs, and farmer’s backyards. These questions and the desire to see lead my co-director and I to begin production of Farm and Red Moon.

Precious Beau with Goat

The film will take you to the farms and slaughterhouses of different scales that I visited over a five-year period, several of them two, three, or four times. I gained unprecedented access to film legitimately so we did not have to sneak our cameras onto the kill floor.  Some of the animals I met had a horrible existence from birth, being caged or crated or chained. Others had a more comfortable fate, like at a small farm with children playing in the yard and giving names to the animals. Regardless, all of their lives will be cut dramatically short and they will be killed. That I was painfully aware of.

But what consumers don’t know is how the animals I met were killed in the best of circumstances. The well-traveled road for most consumers is lined with the deception of “humane slaughter” that is poorly understood, under-regulated, and often practiced incorrectly for a variety of reasons that we get into in the film. When I showed my footage of people trying to do it right to Temple Grandin (who serves on our advisory board and appears in the film) she said to me, “I don’t see any bad behavior in these videos, what I do see is that people don’t know what they are doing.” It’s often a murky grey area between unintended abuses and agregious abuse.

Farm and Red Moon takes you on the road less traveled. This road leads us to look at the suffering animals experience being slaughtered when no abuse is intended. This road will make all the difference to many animals. It’s not enough to turn away from animal agricultural and adopt a vegan diet. Animals continue suffer and something must be done, and for things to be done we must all take the time to see and engage in dialogue.

Constantly on my mind are:

Chickens, like the “humanely slaughtered” chickens I saw who gasped for air as they bled out.


Goats, like the “humanely slaughtered” goat I saw who despite being stunned with a captive bolt gun, insisted on standing up and fighting for his life.


Cows, like the “humanely slaughtered” cow I saw who kept regaining consciousness as his throat was cut, and cut again, and hacked to the point of his head coming off.

Number 70

Lambs, like the “humanely slaughtered” lamb I saw die all too slowly and painfully on a kind and gentle farm by kind and gentle people who really care about their animals and want the best for them.


Hal Herzog, acclaimed author of Some We Love, Some We Hate, and Some We Eat: Why It’s So Hard To Think Straight About Animals,  says that Farm and Red Moon is an “extraordinarily intelligent and moving documentary on the human-meat relationship” that will have “wide appeal to both committed vegetarians and omnivores alike.” Because the animals can’t wait any longer for you to learn the truth about what happens to them between their FARM and their RED MOON.

The animals come first, we must see, understand, and respond on a personal level what they endure, and then we’ll be better informed when we debate our food choices and decide for ourselves what we make of the notion of “humane slaughter” and its discontents. Your comments on this post are welcome or you may contact us directly.

Audrey Kali, November 14, 2015.

Minor edits were made to this post on November 19, 2015. Image credits and acknowledgments:  Meat Department Design by I-5 Design & Manufacture, CC Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license; all other images from the film Farm and Red Moon, © 2015 by Audrey Kali and David Tamés. Trademarks referenced herein belong to their respective owners.

A visit to White Oak Pastures

Why Will Harris Holds the Key to Eating Meat Sustainably

Last week we visited White Oak Pastures, Will Harris’ fourth-generation farm in Bluffton, Georgia. Will raises cattle, sheep, goats, chickens turkeys, and geese. In the near future he plans to add rabbits and hogs as well. The farm is exemplary in terms of both land stewardship and humane animal handling.

Will Harris
This 2,500 acre farm is the largest organic farm in Georgia and the only farm in the United States that has both a beef and chicken abattoir on the property. Will’s farming methods are based on pasture rotation modeled after the natural animal migration patterns in the Serengeti Plains of Africa. At White Oak Pastures the cows graze the grass, the sheep eat the weeds, and the chickens peck at the grubs and insects. All the species naturally fertilize the land and participate in a sustainable and symbiotic ecological cycle.

White Oak Pastures
As Will explained to us, he strives to work with nature, rather than working against nature and trying to outwit nature. He says, “Nature produces no waste,” quoting George Washington Carver. On White Oak Pastures all of the fertilizers for the organic crops are made right on the farm from the natural byproducts of raising and slaughtering animals.

Will Harris, Chickens, White Oak Pastures
We asked Will if raising animals was essential for sustainability, and he feels strongly that it does, saying “sustainable agriculture is about emulating nature. . . and if you’re emulating nature, animals are part of that. Nature abhors a vacuum. Nature abhors a monoculture. Nature despises one species of plant or animal occupying a space exclusively. They want a symbiotic relationship.”

Cows, White Oak Pastures
It’s no wonder that White Oak Pastures received the Governor’s Environmental Stewardship Award for Agriculture from the State of Georgia in 2011. Given all of Will’s efforts toward sustainability, in addition to recycling each plant and animal byproduct on the farm, White Oak Pastures has its own water treatment plant that reuses the wash down water from the abattoirs to irrigate the crops. A 50,000 watt solar voltaic array is used to heat the water in the abattoirs and provides some of the electricity to power the processing plant.

As Will drove us around his lush, green pastures in his Jeep, he told us passionately that he’s “a land steward and a herdsman.” We saw how respectful he is when it comes to the animals. At one point in our day he carefully picked up a laying hen and handed it to Audrey, who was excited and tentative at the same time.

Audrey Kali and Will Harris
Will shared with us that when he first started to sell his meat from his farm directly to customers, he’d be asked how he can raise a calf or a lamb or a chick, from the day it’s born or hatched, feed it, care for it, nurture it all its life, and then kill it and skin it and gut it and eat it. His answer always was, “It doesn’t bother me a bit. This is the way things are. This is what happens.”

Will Harris hands Audrey Kali a Chicken
But he realized, “this is an unacceptable answer even though it’s true, because it sounds flippant. And it doesn’t really help that person understand the disconnect.” He thought about this reply a long time and came up with a better answer that would help connect the disconnect:

Will Harris and Audrey Kali among Turkey's on White Oak Pastures
“As a herdsman, I love my herd as much as you love your pet. Just as much. But I love the herd, not the individuals in the herd. And it is absolutely essential that we slaughter these animals for nourishment in a respectful and humane way, so that another generation can be born. It’s a river not a lake.”

White Oak Pastures Cattle
As we toured the farm, Will explained that cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and chickens have become food animals, and that the “most noble positioning of those animals, is to be in herds, on this farm, feeding the land that feeds them, and feeding the people that care for them. It’s a beautiful system!”

Will Harris
Will pointed out that the more organic a farm becomes, the more flora and fauna you will have on the farm. This frog we came across was described as “a good sign” by Will. He said that when he quit using pesticides, one of the surprises was that species of plants and animals that he remembered as a kid, came back. Every day, as he transformed his farm to an organic system, he saw something new that he remembered from forty years ago.

Frog on screen door
Insects, too, are a special part of Will’s polyculture. This multiple-species habitat, in perfect balance with nature, makes the farm thrive in a way that monoculture farms controlled with pesticides and herbicides cannot. Will showed us how dung beetles dig down 18 inches to lay their eggs. Dung beetles, that help the decomposition of animal manure around the world, consume large amounts of dung as adults and larvae. They reduce pasture fouling, add nutrients to the soil, aerate the soil, and compete for nesting habitat and food resources with flies (particularly the face fly and the horn fly). Face flies can irritate cattle to the point that they lose weight from not wanting to graze. Horn flies can cause painful bleeding sores, also causing cattle to not want to eat. We’ve seen a lot of cattle over the past two years of filming, and have never seen such a large herd at this time of year without faces full of flies!

Digging for Dung Beatles
We got to see the cattle (and, of course, all of the other animals) up close and personal. Will explained that all of his animals have no idea that a human being is capable of hurting them. They’ve never been hurt by a person and so they are all so trusting.

But Will clarifies that as much as he loves his herds, they are not pets. They are food animals, which is why he stresses that slaughter is an essential element of what he does. As he explains, “If you raise an animal and you can’t turn it into meat, then it’s just going to become an old and infirmed animal. And who would be benefiting from that? These animals are killed right in the prime of their life — they don’t volunteer to make that sacrifice, obviously — but what’s so wrong about that? They never suffer a day. . . they express instinctive behavior, all day long, every day. . . my food animals have a better life than most people’s pets.”

White Oak Pastures Meat Packing
The end product of all of the efforts at White Oak Pastures with the animals is, of course, meat. The handling of meat as it is being cut from carcasses at this well-managed and pristine cutting and packing room is a sight that people are familiar with from trips to the local supermarket.

White Oak Pastures Grassfed Beef Box
Before meat is packaged into a box like the one above, which in this case would be destined for Whole Foods Markets, the animals need to be humanely slaughtered in a USDA-inspected abattoir. Both of Will’s abattoirs, one for chicken and the other for beef, were designed by Dr. Temple Grandin, a highly respected advocate for humane handling and slaughter of farm animals for the past twenty years. Will, a true spokesperson for transparency when it comes to understanding where meat comes from and how it is processed, let us see and film in both processing plants.

Abattoirs on farm at White Oak Pastures
For many people, the abattoir is the missing link between pasture and plate. White Oak Pastures, by having the abattoirs literally connected to the farm office, storefront, and restaurant pavilion, is a testament to how important it is to bridge the disconnect that has kept so many from the full cycle of meat production. From the dung beetle, to the frog, to the cattle grazing among the chickens, sheep and turkeys, to the humane killing of the animals, to the animal byproducts fed back into the land for the vegetables — it’s all as Will says, “a beautiful system.”

Stunning Chickens at White Oak Pastures on-farm Abattoir
Will showed us the chicken abattoir. This facility is state-of-the-art for humane handling and slaughter. Although poultry is excluded from the Humane Methods of Slaughter Act in the United States, and it is therefore not mandatory for them to be rendered unconscious by stunning before being cut to bleed out, White Oak Pastures skillfully stuns each bird with an electrical stunning knife so it will not feel any pain. The lights are kept low in this section of the abattoir in order to keep the chickens calm. The manner in which they slaughter and process chickens at White Oak Pastures has earned their chicken a Step 5 rating from Global Animal Partnership.

de-feathering chickens at White Oak Pastures on-farm abattoir
Another important part of humane animal handling is the transport, unloading, and holding pen areas. As part of Dr. Temple Grandin’s design, this unloading ramp and holding pen for cattle assured that the animals stayed calm throughout the process.

unloading cattle at the White Oak Pastures on-farm abattoir
The chutes that lead from the holding pen to the kill floor inside, also designed by Dr. Temple Grandin, keep the cattle from being afraid of outside distractions with the high walls. The workers were all gentle in coaxing the cattle through the chute.

cows in holding pens at White Oak Pastures
Dr. Temple Grandin says “We’ve go to give animals a decent life, and when it’s time to die, a painless death. And we’ve got to give them a life that’s worth living.” Will Harris stays true to these humane standards every step of the way. This is just one of the many reasons that all of the meat from White Oak Pastures is approved by Certified Humane and Animal Welfare Approved. It is also part of Global Animal Partnership’s 5-Step Animal Welfare Rating Standards program.

abattoir kill floor
When we saw the kill floor in the beef processing plant, Will carefully explained all of the details of both food safety and humane slaughter. Getting a better understanding of how slaughter is done here and being able to see the process first-hand, illuminates how Will respects the animals. This respect, as we learned throughout our time at White Oak Pastures, reveals the special character of White Oak Pastures and everyone working there.

pavilion at White Oak Pastures
During lunch time we joined Will and his workers at the Pavilion, where employees are served a hot lunch consisting of fresh vegetables and beef or chicken which was raised and processed on the farm. Your plate can’t get much closer to the pasture than having lunch at the White Oak Pastures pavilion, and true to their corporate ethos, regardless of whether you’re a manager or entry-level worker, everyone waits their turn in line for lunch. In every way, White Oak Pastures provides a living example of the future of sustainable agriculture, humane animal handling, and positive work environments, all components of an integrated whole, bringing us back to harmony with nature.